As a "Black Swan" event, hydraulic fracturing is essentially a paradigm shifter, and the new technologies that make hydraulic fracturing possible are game-changing. Like many paradigm shifting game-changers, the first response is one of adoption, to be followed by narratives of resistance. For Americans, the responses accompanying hydraulic fracturing should be nothing new; after all, they are part of a long tradition of responses to new technologies, and they reflect anxieties about the essential dual nature of technology. While technology can be used for the good, there is also the potential for misuse and harm, along with unexpected consequences of the technology itself. These anxieties about technology have been described in many works of American art, literature, and philosophy.
In all cases, the narrative itself exercises a deterministic effect on the way that the world is perceived, and the way that meaning(s) can be created.